Analysis of the current situation of intelligent f

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Analysis of the current situation of smart factories at home and abroad under the smart manufacturing boom

in recent years, the smart manufacturing boom has swept the world. Germany, a manufacturing power, and the United States have proposed "German industry 4.0" and "American advanced manufacturing/industrial interconnection" respectively. At the same time, China has proposed that "made in China 2025" is the most important measure of the national strategy. In a narrow sense, intelligent factory is the specific application of intelligent manufacturing related technologies, products and systems such as mobile communication network, data sensing and monitoring, information interaction and integration, advanced artificial intelligence at the factory level, so as to realize the intellectualization, networking, flexibility and greening of production system. In a broad sense, intelligent factory is an organizational carrier based on manufacturing, extending synchronously to the upstream and downstream of the industrial chain, and covering the implementation and Realization of intellectualization in the whole life cycle of products. As important practical fields of intelligent manufacturing, smart factory and digital factory have attracted extensive attention of manufacturing enterprises and governments at all levels. This paper will analyze the current situation of intelligent factory construction at home and abroad

I. Analysis of the current situation of intelligent factory construction in foreign countries

in recent years, major economies around the world are vigorously promoting the development of manufacturing industry, and many excellent manufacturing enterprises have carried out the practice of intelligent factory construction. For example, Siemens Amberg electronics factory has realized the mixed line production of various industrial control computers; Fanuc company has achieved a high degree of automation and intelligence in the production process of robots and servo motors, and used automated three-dimensional warehouses to transfer materials between intelligent manufacturing units in the workshop, realizing up to 720 hours of unattended; Schneider Electric realizes the full automation of the manufacturing and packaging process of electrical switches; Harley Davidson of the United States widely uses intelligent manufacturing units composed of machining centers and robots to achieve mass customization; Mitsubishi Electric Nagoya manufacturing institute adopts a new robot assembly line with man-machine integration, which realizes the transformation from automation to intelligence, and significantly improves the output per unit production area

II. Analysis of the current situation of domestic smart factory construction

with the rapid rise of a new round of industrial changes and technological revolution, such as industry 4.0, industrial interconnection, IOT, cloud computing, big data, social networking, intelligent equipment, machine community, etc., the development of modern industrial informatization has entered a new historical stage of building smart factories. In order to seize this development opportunity, under the background of the national deployment and implementation of the strategic layout of manufacturing power, enterprises have accelerated the continuous integration of information technology and industrial technology, and a series of new models, new formats and new features have become increasingly prominent

China has a strong demand for the automation and intelligent transformation of production and assembly lines and the establishment of new smart factories in all walks of life, such as aviation, aerospace, shipbuilding, automobile, home appliances, rail transit, food and beverage, pharmaceutical, equipment manufacturing, home furnishing and so on. At present, there are emerging examples of the construction of smart factories such as Chengdu Digital chemical plant, Haier, Midea and so on

Chengdu Digital chemical plant adopts Siemens PLM Software to realize seamless information interconnection through virtual product design and planning, making the plant fully transparent and realizing the integration of virtual design and real production; PLM, MES and automation are built on a database platform. MES and TIA are used to integrate products and the whole life cycle of production, greatly shortening the time to market of products; Automatically monitor the quality to ensure the quality, and the one-time pass rate of quality can reach 99.9985%; The logistics has been fully automated, the replenishment time has been greatly shortened, the production efficiency has been improved, the machine machine interconnection, machine material interconnection and man-machine interconnection have been realized, a highly intelligent production and processing control system has been established, and an intelligent factory of digital twins has been realized

however, there are still many problems and misunderstandings in promoting the construction of smart factories in China's manufacturing enterprises:

1. The industry has different levels of understanding of smart factories, and there is a large gap in the differentiation of construction levels. Smart factory is an imported word, which has a relatively rich practical foundation and experience in foreign developed countries. However, as far as China is concerned, there are different cognitive levels and uneven construction levels of smart factory construction in various industries. The cognition of intelligent factory mainly includes the following aspects: first, the construction of intelligent factory adopts three-dimensional digital design and simulation technology to realize the efficiency and quality of product R & D and design; Second, the construction of intelligent factory adopts industrial robots, high-end CNC machine tools, PLC and other intelligent manufacturing equipment to improve the automation and intelligence level of manufacturing equipment; Third, the construction of intelligent factory is to integrate sensors, processors and communication modules into products to realize traceability, identification and positioning of products; Fourth, the construction of intelligent factory is to build a C2B mode based on Internet, realize personalized and independent design of products, and meet the personalized customization needs of consumers. These perceptions of smart factories mainly focus on some aspects such as products, equipment, production, management and services, as well as the intelligent transformation of some links such as R & D and design, production and manufacturing, after-sales service, which are not comprehensive and systematic. Based on different perceptions of smart factories, there is a large gap in the level of construction differentiation between industries

2. The systematic planning of intelligent factory construction is insufficient, the emergency action is well deployed, and the value creativity of the whole life cycle needs to be enhanced. The construction of intelligent factory is a complex systematic project, involving R & D and design, production and manufacturing, warehousing and logistics, marketing, after-sales service, information consulting and other links, which requires enterprises to be based on the full life cycle value chain around products, Although manufacturing technology has fallen back in the past 19 years, it is still on the high side and information technology has developed in all links. Limited to factors such as insufficient capital investment, lack of intelligent production equipment and technology, and insufficient in-depth cognition, the construction of enterprise intelligent factories in China as a whole lacks systematic planning, and the links covered need to be improved. Although large leading enterprises have a relatively long-term planning layout, on the whole, the full life cycle characteristics of building smart factories in Chinese enterprises are still not obvious. First, the enterprise lacks overall planning, and the integration of resources between departments and business sectors needs to be improved, especially the horizontal data docking, information sharing and business collaboration between internal departments of the enterprise. Second, enterprises generally lack full information flow management from product research and development, design, production, logistics to services, which makes it difficult to achieve seamless connection and information integration of all links

3. The dependence on foreign technology is still high, and the safety and controllability need to be further improved. First, from the perspective of intelligent equipment field, the localization rate of domestic intelligent equipment market is still low. At present, foreign brands occupy the leading position in the domestic industrial robot market. Domestic industrial robots are subject to the gap of basic industries. Their independent R & D and production capacity in key parts such as servo motors, reducers and controllers is weak. Compared with foreign brands, there is still a big gap in precision, reliability and stability. China's CNC machine tool industry is large but not strong. Domestic high-end CNC machine tools that produce high-efficiency automobile engines, aircraft engine turbine discs, such as steel and plastic aircraft fuselages, high-speed train heads, etc. still rely on foreign brands at different levels. Second, in the field of industrial control, the situation of domestic information security is relatively severe. Relevant construction and research abroad started earlier, and there are relatively mature standards, products and service systems. At the same time, core technologies and tools such as testing and certification, safety protection products are also relatively mature. There is a lack of independent and controllable testing and certification technologies and tools in China, and relevant standards, safety consulting and evaluation are still in the stage of exploration and construction. At present, domestic industrial control systems are mainly foreign products, and operation and maintenance services mainly depend on foreign suppliers. It can be said that most domestic industrial control systems are still basically in an unprotected state

4. At present, there are more and more intelligent equipment suppliers at home and abroad, and a large number of intelligent equipment are emerging. However, there are problems in the following aspects: in terms of automation equipment, blindly buying automation equipment and automatic production lines. Many manufacturing enterprises still believe that promoting intelligent factories is automation and roboticization. They blindly pursue "black light factories", promote the transformation of robots in single stations, and promote rigid automatic production lines that can process or assemble single products by replacing people with machines. In terms of equipment interconnection and data acquisition, we only pay attention to the purchase of high-end CNC equipment, but are not equipped with the corresponding software system. The automatic collection of equipment data and workshop connection have not been realized. Enterprises do not require open data interfaces when purchasing equipment, and most of the equipment can not automatically collect data, and workshop connection is not realized. At present, each major automation manufacturer has its own industrial bus and communication protocol, and the application of OPC UA standard is not popular. In terms of equipment utilization, equipment performance is not high, production equipment is not fully utilized, and the health status of equipment is not effectively managed. Unplanned downtime is often caused by equipment failure, affecting production

5. The factory operation level is still a black box. In terms of factory operation, there is still a lack of information system support, the workshop is still a black box, the production process is still difficult to achieve full traceability, and the manufacturing BOM data and man hour data closely related to production management are also inaccurate. There are still a large number of information islands and automation islands. The construction of intelligent factory involves suppliers in intelligent equipment, automation control, sensors, industrial software and other fields, and the integration is very difficult. Many enterprises have not only many information islands, but also many automation islands. There is no unified planning for automatic production lines, and transit warehouses are needed between production lines

the reason is that intelligent manufacturing and intelligent factory cover many fields, the system is extremely complex, and enterprises still lack a deep understanding. Under such circumstances, manufacturing enterprises should not rush forward and carry out the "great leap forward" in order to avoid causing the investment of enterprises to drift. We should rely on consulting service institutions with practical experience, combined with the internal it, automation and lean teams of the enterprise, with the active participation of senior management, and do a good job in demand analysis and overall planning according to the enterprise's products and production processes. On this basis, we should advance steadily. The new regulations do not stipulate that its supporting extended calculation levels must also be equivalent to achieve practical results

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